The topics at this level are usually taught somewhere before university.
- Basic linear algebra
- Dot products
- Matrix multiplication
These are topics covered in the early years of most BSc programs.
- Taylor series
Topics generally covered in the later parts of BSc programs.
- Axiomatic set theory
- Numbers revisited
- The spectral theorem
- The fundamental theorem of algebra
Topics generally covered in MSc programs.
- Mutual information
- Kulback Leibler divergence
- Group convolutions
- The graph Laplacian
Topics that are usually no longer covered in organized educational formats, but rather in research articles or materials aimed at working scientists.
- Kolmogorov complexity